【macOS】Mac Mini 2012 安装 Big Sur

Posted by 西维蜀黍 on 2021-04-24, Last Modified on 2021-10-17

[Approach 1] - Patched-Sur


打开 .dmg,下载并写入到U盘。

按住 Alt,选择 EFI,此后电脑会动shutdown。

按电脑开关以打开电脑,同时按住 Alt,选择install Big Sur。然后,就开始愉快的系统安装了。


$ sudo /Volumes/Image\ Volume/patch-kexts.sh /Volumes/Macintosh\ HD

[Approach 2] big-sur-micropatcher


Download OS

For downloading Big Sur installer, we will use a tool called gibMacOS

  1. Open this link, and press green “Code” button, and download as zip
  2. Unzip it, and run gibMacOS.command in the folder
  3. Wait unil “Available Products” screen, enter number of the Big Sur option and press Enter. Also, you can choose specific version, look at the terminal screen for the info about it
  4. Wait until it finishes
  5. After that, open “macOS Downloads” folder in the gibMacOS folder, and run InstallAssistant.pkg
  6. Select your current OS drive, and wait until it finishes
  7. Installer will be in Applications

Creating Installer USB

Open terminal and do this:

$ sudo /Applications/Install\ macOS\ Big\ Sur.app/Contents/Resources/createinstallmedia --volume /Volumes/Your\ Usb\ Volume\ Name

Patching installer and installation

  1. Make sure you have a 16GB or larger USB stick to use for creating the installer.

  2. Obtain a copy of macOS Big Sur.

  3. Download a copy of this patcher. If you are viewing this on GitHub, and you probably are, then click the green “Code” button then “Download ZIP”.

  4. Use Disk Utility to erase the USB stick using “Mac OS Extended (Journaled)” format and “GUID Partition Map” scheme. (You may need to choose “Show All Devices” before Disk Utility will allow you to do this.) In order for this patcher to run optimally, the USB stick must use GUID Partition Map and not Master Boot Record. (This is a new requirement as of micropatcher v0.2.0.) Note that the volume name does not particularly matter, since it will be renamed by createinstallmedia in the next step. (If this USB stick already contains a patched Big Sur installer created using micropatcher v0.2.0 or later, and you are re-creating it with a newer version of the micropatcher or a newer version of Big Sur, you may skip this step.)

  5. Use createinstallmedia as usual to create a bootable USB stick with the installer and recovery environment, as you would on a supported Mac. (This patcher is easier to use if the installer USB stick is not renamed after createinstallmedia is used, but it can still work if the USB stick has been renamed.)

    $ sudo /Applications/Install\ macOS\ Big\ Sur.app/Contents/Resources/createinstallmedia --volume /Volumes/MyVolume
  6. Run micropatcher.sh to patch the USB stick. If micropatcher.sh is unable to find the USB stick, then try specifying the pathname of the USB stick to micropatcher.sh. The easiest way to do that is to open a Terminal window, drag and drop micropatcher.sh into the Terminal window, go back to Finder, choose Computer from the Go menu, drag and drop the USB stick into the Terminal window, then press Return.

    $ micropatcher.sh
    • Another program also needs to be patched onto the USB stick, so run install-setvars.sh. If necessary, the same Finder/Terminal drag-and-drop instructions that work in step 6 for micropatcher.sh will also work in this step for install-setvars.sh.

    • Unlike micropatcher.sh, install-setvars.sh needs root permissions (since it accesses the normally hidden EFI partition on the USB stick), so it uses sudo to obtain root permissions. Typically this means it will ask for your user account password when it starts.

      $ sudo install-setvars.sh
    • If you want the patched USB stick to configure your Mac to boot in Verbose Mode, run install-setvars.sh -v instead of just install-setvars.sh. However, the “Verbose” in “Verbose Mode” is not a joke, and most users will want to avoid this.

    • As of Big Sur Micropatcher v0.4, install-setvars.sh will now install a version of setvars which enables Apple’s System Integrity Protection (SIP) and Authenticated Root Volume (ARV) security features if it is run on a Late 2013 iMac, or a version of setvars which disables both of these features if it is run on any other model of Mac. You may add a -d option to force the installation of the setvars version which disables these features (for instance, if you are creating the USB on a Late 2013 iMac but you will be using it on another Mac). You may also add a -e option to for the installation of the setvars version which enables these features (for instance, if you are installing Big Sur on a 2012 or 2013 Mac that has been upgraded with an 802.11ac WiFi card and therefore does not need a WiFi patch).

  7. Since Disk Utility in Big Sur may have new bugs, this may be a good time to use Disk Utility in High Sierra/Mojave/Catalina to do any partitioning or formatting you may need.

  8. (Try repeating this step if you see a prohibited/no-entry sign during boot) Restart the Mac while holding down the Option key t`o use the Startup Selector. The installer USB will actually show up as two different drives with the same icon, “Install macOS Big Sur Beta” (or similar) and “EFI Boot”. (If you have multiple “EFI Boot” drives, it’s the one with the yellow icon. If more than one has a yellow icon and you cannot tell which one is the one on the installer USB, try unplugging the installer USB, observing the set of icons on the screen, then plugging the installer USB back in and watching how the icons change.) Start up from “EFI Boot”. Within a few seconds, although most likely in under a second, the Mac will suddenly power down. This indicates that the setvars EFI utility has finished making the necessary changes to the Mac’s NVRAM settings. (These changes include disabling SIP, disabling authenticated root, and enabling TRIM on non-Apple SSDs.)

  9. Turn the Mac back on (or reboot it if you skipped step 9), with the Option key down again, to use the Startup Selector again. This time, boot from “Install macOS Big Sur Beta” (or similar). (If the Startup Selector is not showing your USB stick this time, try unplugging and replugging the USB stick.) If you see a prohibited/no-entry sign, then try repeating step 9.

  10. If you need to do any partitioning or formatting with Disk Utility, and you didn’t do it in step 8, now is the time to do it.

  11. (Optional, for very advanced users only, 99.9% of users should just pretend this step doesn’t even exist) This patcher normally disables APFS system volume sealing, except when both SIP and ARV are enabled (see step 7 for more information about that). If you wish to unconditionally enable APFS system volume sealing, then open Terminal, run the command /Volumes/Image\ Volume/insert-hax.sh --seal and quit Terminal. If you have no idea what any of this means, just skip this step. (Also, note that even though volume sealing is disabled by default with this patcher, snapshot root is still enabled. Just mentioning this because people sometimes confuse the two issues. If you have some need to disable snapshot root, that is beyond the scope of this README. Personally, I would suggest learning to live in harmony with snapshot root rather than declaring war on it; the section “Modifying the System volume yourself” at the end of this README may help in that regard.)

  12. Start the Installer as you would on a supported Mac.

  13. Once installation is underway, come back in an hour or so, and you should be at the macOS Setup Assistant! It may take less time if you’re installing on a 2012/2013 Mac, or more time (possibly 2-3 hours) if you’re installing on a hard drive/SSD connected via USB 2.0, or if you’re upgrading instead of a fresh install. (If you actually watch the installation process, don’t be surprised if it seems to get stuck at “Less than a minute remaining…” for a long time. Allow it well over half an hour. It should eventually reboot on its own and keep going. Likewise, don’t worry if it reboots with 10-12 minutes remaining; that is also often normal.)

    • On many pre-2011 Macs, such as 2010 MacBooks, it will start crashing repeatedly with kernel panics shortly before the Setup Assistant would normally show up. Once this happens, boot from the installer USB and perform step 15 (the next step), with the --2010 option. That will fix the kernel panic.
    • If you’re on a Late 2013 iMac, or you’ve replaced the 802.11n card in your 2012/2013 Mac with an 802.11ac card, you’re done.

    • Otherwise, press Command-Q and wait a few seconds, then the Setup Assistant should let you shut down. After you shut down, boot from the patched installer USB again (as in step 10), then open Terminal. Next, run the patch-kexts.sh command to do post-install patching (such as fixing Wi-Fi). There are several ways of formatting this command. For example, for a system volume named Macintosh HD, try one of the following:

      • /Volumes/Image\ Volume/patch-kexts.sh /Volumes/Macintosh\ HD
      • '/Volumes/Image Volume/patch-kexts.sh' '/Volumes/Macintosh HD'
      • "/Volumes/Image Volume/patch-kexts.sh" "/Volumes/Macintosh HD"
  • You can also mix-and-match quotation/escaping formats, such as /Volumes/Image\ Volume/patch-kexts.sh "/Volumes/Macintosh HD" - Backslashes may work better with tab completion (see below), but many users will find quotation marks to be easier.

    • Don’t forget that tab completion is your friend! For instance, you can type /V<tab>/Im<tab>/p<tab> /V<tab>/Mac<tab> at the command prompt – that’s much less typing than /Volumes/Image\ Volume/patch-kexts.sh /Volumes/Macintosh\ HD!

    • If you’re going to use the installation on a 2010 or older Mac (except for 2009-2010 Mac Pro), add a “–2010” command line option, for example /Volumes/Image\ Volume/patch-kexts.sh --2010 /Volumes/Macintosh\ HD.

    • Normally patch-kexts.sh installs the mojave-hybrid WiFi patch (used since micropatcher v0.2.1), but if you need to try a different WiFi patch for any reason, try adding the --wifi=hv12v-old (same as v0.0.6-v0.0.20) or --wifi=hv12v-new (same as v0.1.0 or v0.2.0) option.

    • patch-kexts.sh tries to automatically detect whether it should create a new APFS snapshot if it is running in a live system, and it defaults to creating a new snapshot if it is running from the patched installer USB. If you need to override this, there are now --create-snapshot and --no-create-snapshot command line options, as of micropatcher v0.3.0.

    • It is also possible to do this step without booting from the patched installer USB – just open Terminal and run /Volumes/Install\ macOS\ Big\ Sur\ Beta/patch-kexts.sh with any command line options if needed (such as /Volumes/Install\ macOS\ Big\ Sur\ Beta/patch-kexts.sh --2011), but do not specify a volume name, and patch-kexts.sh will automatically default to the boot drive.

  1. (This step is unnecessary for most users.) If you will be using the Big Sur installation on a different Mac (for instance, installing on a 2011 or later Mac and using it on a 2009 or 2010 Mac), it is possible that the other Mac (the one not used for installation) may try to boot off the wrong APFS snapshot. To prevent this, run zap-snapshots.sh on your System volume, to remove all but the most recent snapshot. For instance, /Volumes/Image\ Volume/zap-snapshots.sh /Volumes/Macintosh\ HD. (Or you can also do this if you are running low on disk space on an older beta of Big Sur.) This is basically the same as step 15, but with zap-snapshots instead of patch-kexts, and without any command line options like --2010 or --2011.

  2. After step 15 (and 16 if necessary), reboot into your Big Sur installation and complete the Setup Assistant if you have not already done so. Pay particular attention to the screen that asks if you want to transfer information from another Mac or PC; if you want to restore a Time Machine backup, you must do it from this screen. The previous method of restoring it from the macOS Installer USB is still visible in the Installer USB’s menu, but it no longer works.

  3. On Macs which do not support Metal (many 2011 and older models), make sure to enable Reduce Transparency to eliminate many seemingly random crashes, and if icons on the right-hand side of the menu bar are invisible afterward, try Dark mode. Enabling Reduce Motion will increase performance a little more, and so might Increase Contrast. (If you will be using the installation on a 2009/2010 Mac, it would be a good idea to finish the Setup Assistant on a 2011 or later Mac and enable Reduce Transparency before moving the installation over.)

  4. Optional (but can greatly improve performance for Macs that do not support Metal): Once booted in your Big Sur installation, run disable-animations.sh from the patched installer USB to disable most animations. If you want to reenable them, run reenable-animations.sh. (Thanks to johncaling40 for these contributed scripts.)